DIRECTIONS: In the passages that follow, some words and phrases are underlined and numbered. In the answer column, you will find alternatives for the words and phrases that are underlined. Choose the alternative that you think is best, and fill in the corresponding bubble on your answer sheet. If you think that the original version is best, choose “NO CHANGE,” which will always be either answer choice A or F. You will also find questions about a particular section of the passage, or about the entire passage. These questions will be identified either by an underlined portion or by a number in a box. Look for the answer that clearly expresses the idea, is consistent with the style and tone of the passage, and makes the correct use of standard written English. Read the passage through once before answering the questions. For some questions, you should read beyond the indicated portion before you answer.
Listening to a Different Language
Dog obedience training is an important undertaking when one acquires Q1 a new dog. This is particularly important if the dog owner is a social person or plans to interact with other dogs and the Q2 owners. One problem, however, is that obedience training was Q3 a form of one-way communication from the owner to the dog. Many owners fail to consider that the animal actually communicates back.
Carefully watching a dog Q4 movements and facial expressions reveals a great deal about what a dog is thinking. A dog’s forehead, for example, may wrinkle when the dog is confused Q5 or waiting for a signal from its owner. When the dog wants to play, it might pull the Q6 lips back slightly, showing its teeth in a “smile.” A relaxed dog might let its tongue loll out of its mouth, creating a look of contentment on its face. Q7 Other forms of body language can also indicate Q8 which emotion a dog is experiencing. For example, if its ears are raised, it is probably absorbing the sounds around it. Shifting its ears back flat against its head demonstrates submission or fear. Q9 A high, wagging tail shows that the dog is happy and ready to play. If the wagging tail is held low and taut, however, the dog is probably on guard and may be ready to pounce. When it feels threatened or indicates submissiveness, the dog might tuck its tail between its legs, crouch down, and then roll over onto its back. Body language and even vocalizations are good indicators of a dog’s emotions. Q10
 While most dogs are capable of learning a variety of human words and physical signals; training Q11 a dog becomes much easier when the owner tries to discern its unique communication signals.  As an owner begins tuning in to his or her dog’s body language, he or she may find that the dog responds to movements in addition to verbal commands.  For example, when teaching a dog to “come,” the owner might find it more effective to crouch down, the owner’s back to the dog as its name is called.  The dog will interpret this behavior in a more positive light than if the owner leans forward and yells at it to “come.”  To a dog, a crouching position is more welcoming than a forward-lean, which a dog naturally finds threatening.  Dog owners should always have small treats on hand to reward their dog when it obeys a command. Q12
The bottom line, is Q13 that there is a great deal more involved in communicating with Q14 a canine than just teaching it to come, stay, heel, and fetch. To attain a strong, two-way relationship, it is best with remembering Q15 the importance of non-verbal communication.