DIRECTIONS: In the passages that follow, some words and phrases are underlined and numbered. In the answer column, you will find alternatives for the words and phrases that are underlined. Choose the alternative that you think is best, and fill in the corresponding bubble on your answer sheet. If you think that the original version is best, choose “NO CHANGE,” which will always be either answer choice A or F. You will also find questions about a particular section of the passage, or about the entire passage. These questions will be identified either by an underlined portion or by a number in a box. Look for the answer that clearly expresses the idea, is consistent with the style and tone of the passage, and makes the correct use of standard written English. Read the passage through once before answering the questions. For some questions, you should read beyond the indicated portion before you answer.
The following paragraphs may or may not be in the most logical order. You may be asked questions about the logical order of the paragraphs, as well as where to place sentences logically within any given paragraph.
Graphic Artists: Art Meets Technology
“Many graphic artists who obtained their training 15 to 20 years ago will have a problem finding work if they haven’t learned to use computer software to create their art.” Q1 declares Sue Mauro, publicist for a U.S. hotel chain. In fact, successful businesses often rely on the creativity and talent of graphic artists to create and produce images and text in the form of digital media, print, films, packaging, and signage. Q2
Mauro’s comment was also Q3 applicable to the creation of animated films.
Q4 Flip-books are a perfect basic example of early animation; each drawing in the book has a slight variation from the preceding drawing. When the pages are flipped in rapid succession; an Q5 action scene unfolds over a few seconds. Traditional animated films are based on this same principle, although Q6 their production is much more complicated and time-consuming. In traditional film animation, several drawings are meticulously applied to cels. Sheets Q7
of clear plastic. As a result, Q8 the entire series of cels is photographed in succession, creating a long, moving cartoon story. Layering cels allows objects that remain stationary to reappear so that only the moving parts must be redrawn.
 This old way of creating animated moving Q9 films is known as traditional ink-and-paint and has given way to today’s digital ink-and-paint.  In the digital ink-and-paint process, the hand drawings are scanned and digitized.  The rest of the production of the film takes place through the use of the computer rather than being applied to individual cels. Q10  This method has greatly decreased the amount and length of time Q11 that it takes to create a whole film, and has allowed animators, from all over the world, Q12 to contribute to a single film’s production.  With more advanced technologies, animators can even draw their original pictures on a graphics tablet that enters the data directly into a computer.  Once the outline of the drawing is complete, it is rather simple to add color.  In addition, it is easier to make changes than it is with traditional ink-and-paint.  Digital animation also produces an entirely different look to the finished product, and graphic art Q13 has always depended on fresh, new looks to grab viewers’ attention. Q14
Though some graphic artists resist change, those who delve into this new technological world often find a way to become comfortable with the marriage of art and technology. The bottom line is that working with technology may be the only way to remain in their chosen field.