DIRECTIONS: In the passages that follow, some words and phrases are underlined and numbered. In the answer column, you will find alternatives for the words and phrases that are underlined. Choose the alternative that you think is best, and fill in the corresponding bubble on your answer sheet. If you think that the original version is best, choose “NO CHANGE,” which will always be either answer choice A or F. You will also find questions about a particular section of the passage, or about the entire passage. These questions will be identified either by an underlined portion or by a number in a box. Look for the answer that clearly expresses the idea, is consistent with the style and tone of the passage, and makes the correct use of standard written English. Read the passage through once before answering the questions. For some questions, you should read beyond the indicated portion before you answer.
When I was preparing for my two-week vacation to southern Africa, I realized that the continent would be like nothing ever that I’d seen, Q1 never having left North America. I wanted to explore the urban’s streets Q2 as well as the savannah; it’s always been my goal to have experiences while on vacation that most tourists fail to find. Q3 Upon my arrival in Africa, the amiable people there welcomed me with open arms. Despite the warmth of these people, I discovered that our cultural differences were stunning and made for plenty of laughter and confusion. What’s funny now, though, more than ever, is how ridiculous I must have seemed to the people of one village when I played with their dog. Q4
When I walk the streets of my hometown now, I often find myself staring at all the dogs and dog-owners on the sidewalk. The owner smiles and stares at the animal, panting Q5 excitedly in anticipation of the next stimulus along the path. Dog’s owners Q6 love to believe their animal is smart, while people who’ve never owned a dog tend to believe the opposite. Q7 Perhaps Americans enjoy dogs for just that sort of ignorant bliss. With a little training, Q8 dogs won’t bark, bite, or use the sofa as a toilet, but they will provide years of unconditional affection and loyalty, plus the occasional lame-brained escapade at which human onlookers can laugh.
If a dog happens Q9 to live on the urban streets of southwest Africa, they soon learn Q10 to deal with a starkly different reality Q11 than that of the American pooch. As I saw it, the relationship between a typical African and his dog is one of mutualism. Q12 I say tangible because the African sees himself as the dominant creature not to be bothered by the dog but Q13 nevertheless responsible for providing for it. Hence, attempts at behavior training are rare on African dogs. Instead, a villager seizes power with a chunk of scrap meat and a bowl of water. The dog soon learns to quit yapping and biting at the hand that feeds him. Never does the villager speak to the animal. Q14 I’m not even sure such dogs get names. Their behavior becomes interestingly balanced, however, much to the surprise of the compassionate American dog lover. I believe that the secret to the villager’s success after so little effort is providing for the dog’s physical needs.
Without the man the dog eats no meat so Q15 the dog reveres the man. Perhaps tomorrow the dog will eat another’s scraps. Soon, the animal becomes tame, well-mannered community property that keeps the rodent population down and the children company.