DIRECTIONS: In the passages that follow, some words and phrases are underlined and numbered. In the answer column, you will find alternatives for the words and phrases that are underlined. Choose the alternative that you think is best, and fill in the corresponding bubble on your answer sheet. If you think that the original version is best, choose “NO CHANGE,” which will always be either answer choice A or F. You will also find questions about a particular section of the passage, or about the entire passage. These questions will be identified either by an underlined portion or by a number in a box. Look for the answer that clearly expresses the idea, is consistent with the style and tone of the passage, and makes the correct use of standard written English. Read the passage through once before answering the questions. For some questions, you should read beyond the indicated portion before you answer.
Coffee in the Shade
Who would have thought that there was any connection between a cup of coffee and a bird, butterfly, or even a bat? Such seems to be the case, however, as Q1 methods for cultivating coffee plants have gradually changed over the past 30 to 40 years. Coffee plants were first discovered growing naturally, in Africa; Q2 hundreds of years ago. The plants grew under a wide canopy of forests, which protected the coffee plants’ tender leaves from the burning sun. As coffee was introduced to other country, Q3 growers would naturally attempt to simulate the plants’ preferred natural habitat. Nevertheless, Q4 coffee plantations all over the world could be found growing successfully in the shade of tall trees. These trees provided more than shade for coffee plants; so they Q5 were also home and protection for many species of birds, reptiles, insects, and other plants.
Over the past several decades, growers were developing Q6 a new kind of coffee plant, one which is not only tolerant of the sun but thrives Q7 in open sunlight. Sun-grown coffee produced as much as three times the yield of shade-grown coffee in the same amount with Q8 time and space.
Consequently, Q9 the high demand for coffee throughout the world makes the sun-grown method of coffee production appear to be the best method. It has been discovered, however, that there are some unanticipated consequences to using this newer method of growing coffee.  First, there might be a chance of rain, Q10 often washing away the soil’s nutrients and minerals.  Ornithologists who are discovering Q11 alarming decreases in some species of songbirds that migrate to the northern United States.  This necessitates an increased use of fertilizers and additives, which is labor-intensive and liable to create health risks.  Second, as Q12 forests are taken down to make way for sun-grown coffee plants, native and migratory birds, as well as many other fauna and flora, Q13 no longer have a home.  This is threatening many species, and the effect is now being examined and recorded.  Finally, more pesticides and insecticides are used in the sun-grown method, all of which take their toll on both the environment and the long-term health of the coffee plants themselves. Q14
Today, shade-grown coffee is more difficult to find and thus more costly. Sitting out on the patio with a morning cup of coffee may soon be a much quieter experience in some locations due to the decimation of certain local songbird species. As more people recognize Q15 the connection between coffee production and the environment, perhaps they will be willing to pay the higher prices, encouraging growers to return to the more natural method of producing this world-wide staple.