DIRECTIONS: In the passages that follow, some words and phrases are underlined and numbered. In the answer column, you will find alternatives for the words and phrases that are underlined. Choose the alternative that you think is best, and fill in the corresponding bubble on your answer sheet. If you think that the original version is best, choose “NO CHANGE,” which will always be either answer choice A or F. You will also find questions about a particular section of the passage, or about the entire passage. These questions will be identified either by an underlined portion or by a number in a box. Look for the answer that clearly expresses the idea, is consistent with the style and tone of the passage, and makes the correct use of standard written English. Read the passage through once before answering the questions. For some questions, you should read beyond the indicated portion before you answer.
Watching a local construction project as it unfolds can evoke a series of many Q1 different emotions. A new subdivision of homes built into Q2 a once thickly wooded Q3 plot of land often devastates the natural beauty of the entire area. Many builders, however, will have taken great care Q4 to maintain as much of the natural landscape as possible by keeping mature trees untouched when possible. Q5 Despite this careful attention, construction damage to existing trees can wreak havoc that only appears years after the construction is complete.
Any disruption to a tree’s root system, trunk, or main branches can often be tied to construction. When considering the large, heavy Q6 equipment used at construction sites, it is easy to understand why they Q7 choose to flatten the land and start over with new plantings. During construction, much of the damage to existing trees occurs beneath the soil, which is why it is Q8 often not detected until much later. If 40 percent or more of a root system is a loss, Q9 the tree will probably die.
(1) Tree roots typically lie close to the surface of the soil and extends Q10 way beyond the circumference of the tree’s canopy. (2) As the bulldozers, dump trucks, and cement trucks drives over Q11 the soil, they can easily crush the tender roots below. (3) Compacting soil around the vital roots with the heavy equipment, may destroy Q12 the tree as well, Q13 (4) Roots need air pockets around them in order to stay healthy. (5) Also, by adding fill dirt or topsoil, the roots suddenly become buried.