In the passages that follow, certain words and phrases are underlined and numbered. In the right-hand column, you will find alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is best, choose “NO CHANGE.” In some cases, you will find in the right-hand column a question about the underlined part. You are to choose the best answer to the question.
You will also find questions about a section of the passage, or about the passage as a whole. These questions do not refer to an underlined portion of the passage, but rather are identified by a number or numbers in a box.
For each question, choose the alternative you consider best and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. Read each passage through once before you begin to answer the questions that accompany it. For many of the questions, you must read several sentences beyond the question to determine the answer. Be sure that you have read far enough ahead each time you choose an alternative.
The Language of Cats
When communicating with each other, cats' "talk" is a complex system of nonverbal signals. Q33 In particular, their tails, rather than any kind of "speech," provide Q34 cats' chief means of expression. They also use physical contact to express their feelings. With other cats, cats will use their voices only to express pain. Q35
Next, incredibly, Q36 all of that changes when a human walks into the room. Cats use a wide range of vocal expressions when they communicate with a person, from affectionate meows to menacing hisses. Since cats verbal expressions Q37 are not used to communicate with other cats, it is logical and reasonable Q38 to conclude that cats developed this "language" expressly to communicate with their human owners.
This fact is demonstrated more clear since Q39 observing households that have only one cat. An only cat is usually very vocal, since the only creature around with whom the cat can communicate is its owner. Cats with other feline companions, though, are much quieter. If they want to have a conversation, they need only go to their fellow cats and communicate in their natural way. Q40
Since cats learned to meow for the sole purpose of communicating with human beings, owners should take the time to learn what their different meows mean. If an owner knows, to Q41 name just a few examples, which meow means the cat is hungry, which means the cat wants to be petted, and which means the cat wants to have a little "conversation," the bond between cat and owner will grow deeper. Q42 Certainly, after a time, owners will see that communicating with their pets, not just cats, is every bit as important to forging good relationships as to communicate Q43 with other humans. Once, as an owner, you know that the cat is not just making senseless noises without any rhyme or reason Q44 but is making an attempt to communicate, you can make an effort to communicate back. After all, your cat isn't meowing just for the sake of making noise; however, cats are less communicative than many other animals. Q45