Since the declaration of War the triumphant War
press has pursued those Senators and Representations
who voted against War With malicious falsehood and
recklessly libelous attacks, going to the extreme limit of
Line 5 charging them with treason against their country.
I have in my possession numerous affidavits
establishing the fact that people are being unlawfully
arrested, thrown into jail, held incommunicado for
days, only to be eventually discharged without ever
10 having been taken into court, because they have
committed no crime. Private residences are being
invaded, loyal citizens of undoubted integrity and
probity arrested, cross-examined, and the most sacred
constitutional rights guaranteed to every American
15 citizen are being violated.
It appears to be the purpose of those conducting
this campaign to throw the country into a state of
terror, to coerce public opinion, to stifle criticism, and
suppress discussion of the great issues involved in this
I think all men recognize that in time of War the
citizen must surrender some rights for the common
good which he is entitled to enjoy in time of peace.
But sir, the right to control their own Government
25 according to constitutional forms is not one of the
rights that the citizens of this country are called upon
to surrender in time of War.
Rather in time of War the citizen must be more
alert to the preservation of his right to control his
30 Government. He must be most Watchful of the
encroachment of the military upon the civil power.
He must beWare of those precedents in support of
arbitrary action by administrative officials, which
excused on the plea of necessity in War time, become
35 the fixed rule when the necessity has passed and
normal conditions have been restored.
More than all, the citizen and his representative in
Congress in time of War must maintain his right of
free speech. More than in times of peace it is necessary that
40 the channels for free public discussion of governmental
policies shall be open and unclogged. I believe,
Mr. President, that I am now touching upon the most
important question in this country today-and that
is the right of the citizens of this country and their
45 representatives in Congress to discuss in an orderly
Way frankly and publicly and without fear, from the
platform and through the press, every important phase
of this War; its causes, the manner in which it should
be conducted, and the terms upon which peace should
50 be made. I am contending, Mr. President, for the great
fundamental right of the sovereign people of this
country to make their voice heard and have that voice
heeded upon the great questions arising out of this War,
including not only how the War shall be prosecuted but
55 the conditions upon which it may be terminated with a
due regard for the rights and the honor of this
Nation and the interests of humanity.
I am contending for this right because the exercise
of it is necessary to the Welfare, to the existence, of this
60 Government to the successful conduct of this War, and
to a peace which shall be enduring and for the best
interest of this country.
Suppose success attends the attempt to stifle all
discussion of the issues of this War, all discussion
65 of the terms upon which it should be concluded,
all discussion of the objects and purposes to be
accomplished by it, and concede the demand of
the war-mad press and War extremists that they
monopolize the right of public utterance upon these
70 questions unchallenged, what think you would be the
consequences to this country not only during the War
but after the War?
It is no answer to say that when the War is over the
citizen may once more resume his rights and feel some
75 security in his liberty and his person. As I have already
tried to point out, now is precisely the time when the
country needs the counsel of all its citizens. In time of
War even more than in time of peace, whether citizens
happen to agree With the ruling administration or
80 not, these precious fundamental personal rights-free
speech, free press, and right of assemblage so explicitly
and emphatically guaranteed by the Constitution
should be maintained inviolable.
1. The position that LaFollette takes is best described as
Correct Answer: C
C The fourth paragraph states, But sir, the right to control their own Government is not one of the rights that the citizens of this country are called upon to surrender in time of war. Therefore, the author is objecting to the restrictions placed on those who have protested the war. Only (C) captures the author's dissenting views. While it is true that LaFollette is a lawmaker, no legislation is proposed, so you can eliminate (A). Since LaFollette argues for a single point of view throughout the text, you can eliminate (B). While it is true that LaFollette was dissenting against the war, this is not his primary purpose, so you can eliminate (D).
2. In the passage, LaFollette draws a distinction between
Correct Answer: A
A The fourth paragraph states, …all men recognize that in time of war the citizen must surrender some…But sir, the right to control their own Government according to constitutional forms is not one of the rights…Therefore, LaFollette believes that some rights are appropriately given up and some are not. Only (A) describes this distinction. LaFollette describes free speech as a fundamental personal right and never describes a moment in which it might be unnecessary, so you can eliminate (B). LaFollette never discusses what would and would not justify a war, so you can eliminate (C). LaFollette does mention the interests of humanity (how wars are ended) and the interests of this country (enduring peace), but does not draw a distinction between them, so you can eliminate (D).
3. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
Correct Answer: B
B The answer to the previous choice was (A), which states that LaFollette draws a distinction between rights that are appropriately and inappropriately given up in times of war. Neither this distinction nor any other distinction is mentioned in (A), so it can be eliminated. The aforementioned distinction is mentioned in the lines referenced in (B). This is the best response. Neither this distinction nor any other distinction is mentioned in (C) or (D), so they can be eliminated.
4. As used in line 8, “incommunicado” most nearly means
Correct Answer: B
B The passage states that people are being unlawfully arrested, thrown into jail…only to be eventually discharged without ever having been taken into court. A good way to describe these individuals would be detained and separated. The only answer choice that means something similar to this is (B), sequestered. Thus, (B) is the correct answer.
5. Lines 32-36 suggest that
Correct Answer: D
DThe passage states that citizens must beware of those precedents in support of arbitrary action by administrative officials, which excused on the plea of necessity in war time, become the fixed rule when the necessity has passed and normal conditions have been restored. Thus, LaFollette is concerned that officials may restrict free speech during times of war but then fail to remove those restrictions when wartime has passed. More simply, LaFollette is worried that exceptions may become rules. Choice (D) matches this idea most closely. LaFollette does grant that the citizen must surrender some rights, but this is mentioned in paragraph 4. Thus, (A) can be eliminated. While LaFollette does say that some restrictions are arbitrary, paragraph 4 explicitly denies that all restrictions are arbitrary. Thus, (B) can be eliminated. While LaFollette does seem to be concerned with military action, (C) is never mentioned in the passage and can be eliminated.
6. Based on the information in the passage, citizen governance is necessary in all of the following situations EXCEPT
Correct Answer: A
A The passage states that the right of the citizens…to discuss…every important phase of this war; its causes, the manner in which it should be conducted, and the terms upon which peace should be made. In this paragraph LaFollette explicitly mentions declaring war, which is referenced in (C); how to conduct war, (D); and how to end a war, (B). Thus, each of these can be eliminated. While LaFollette probably believes that citizens ought to elect legislators and executives, it is never mentioned in the passage. Thus, (A) is the best answer.
7. The principal rhetorical effect of the phrase in lines 48-50, (“its causes…peace should be made”) is to
Correct Answer: B
B The beginning of the sentence in question states that it is the right of the citizens…to discuss…every important phase of this war. Thus, the list that follows serves as examples of the important phases of a war in which citizen oversight might be necessary. Choice (B) is the best match to this description. LaFollette's main point in the passage is to argue against the restriction of free speech during war, so (A) can be eliminated. LaFollette does offer reasons why the press might be afraid to speak out, but not in the referenced paragraph. Therefore, (C) can be eliminated. LaFollette does not believe that citizens understand wars better than the president, only that the country needs the counsel of all citizens, so (D) can be eliminated.
8. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
Correct Answer: D
D The answer to the previous question is (B), that LaFollette believes that free speech is necessary for the conduct of war. Choice (D) introduces this idea explicitly. The lines in (A) reference reasons that people are currently afraid to publicly discuss the issues in question, but do not provide reasons why speech is necessary and can be eliminated. The lines in (B) explain why some are attempting to restrict speech and can be eliminated. The lines in (C) give reasons why we should be concerned by the attempts to restrict free speech, but they provide no explicit mention of why free speech is necessary during times of war. Eliminate (C) as well.
9. The author’s attitude toward “the attempt to stifle” (line 63) can be described as
Correct Answer: C
C The last paragraph of the passage states that now is precisely the time when the country needs counsel of all its citizens. Therefore, LaFollette believes that attempts to stifle discussion about issues of war are highly undesirable and contrary to the major goals of American democracy. Only (C) expresses an attitude that matches this position. LaFollette does not offer any sympathetic explanations for suppressing free speech, so (A) can be eliminated. LaFollette clearly cares about the suppression of free speech, so (B) can be eliminated. Choice (D), morose, is anegative attitude, but it is overly negative and too passive for the tone of the passage. LaFollette is displeased with the suppression of free speech, but he is not sad or depressed about it.
10. As used in line 83, “inviolable” most nearly means
Correct Answer: C
C The first sentence of the last paragraph states that It is no answer to say that when the war is over the citizen may once more resume his rights…. Thus, LaFollette rejects even the idea of a temporary restriction of free speech, a right that he calls precious and fundamental. LaFollette thinks that free speech should never be withheld. Instead it should be maintained without interruption or restriction. Choice (C) is the best match to this meaning.