Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.
Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.
After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.
For Figs? The Chimps
Aren't Chumps Sometimes as you fall asleep, you're thinking about what to eat for breakfast the next morning. "When I get up, I'll go to the fridge. I'll have an egg, a piece of toast, and a few strips of bacon Q1 while I'm making coffee." Even though you may know where your food is coming from, you plan breakfast as a way to plan the day.
Our species may have been doing this kind of breakfast planning long before refrigerators, long before our species was even our species. A team of researchers recently followed groups of chimpanzees through three periods of fruit scarcity in West Africa. Q2
For a chimpanzee, every day during a fruit-poor season can be like Black Friday, where all the "shoppers" want the same hot item. Why does everyone freak out during Black Friday when the deals aren't even that good? Q3
If you want to be sure to get the new, say, plasma TV, what do you have to do? Camp out in front of the store! Well, that's exactly what the researchers found the chimpanzees to do with the coveted fruits. In fruit-poor seasons, the nomadic chimpanzees set up their Q4 campsites within striking distance of the ripe fruits. When the fruits were Q5
"_________," or quick to disappear, the female chimpanzees set up their sleeping nests more pointedly in the direction of the fruit than theQ6 fruit was plentiful. Moreover, in order to ensure that the fruit supply would not be gobbled by Q7
the time the chimps got there, they woke up early, often before sunrise, when the forests were still dark.
The findings about the chimp has led Q8
scientists to reopen a number of heated questions. The first has to do with animals' existence outside the present moment: how much do they remember, and how much do they plan? In other words, is "consciousness" really only the province of humans? Q9
The other set of questions has to do with the lines of evolution. It has been firmly established that chimpanzees are our evolutionary ancestors, but now we have to wonder if we've inherited even more than we thought from them initially.Q10
Have the lives of chimpanzees conditioned the small, day-to-day patterns of our own lives?
While such questions may seem purely academic and conceptual, they actually have a good deal to do with our lived experience. We learn more and more about what we share with other animals—and with each discovery, we learn a new way to relate to the world around us.