Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.
Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.
After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.
The Other Steel City
Set on the banks of Monocacy Creek, Q1 the area that is now Bethlehem, PA, was inhabited by a rich diversity Q2 of indigenous peoples. [A] By the time of that contact, the area was primarily one of the Algonquian-speaking Lenape tribe and its various divisions. They Q3 traded with many settlers in the mid-Atlantic region.
While many groups in other regions were systematically exterminated and relegated to smaller plots of land, the Lenape went on to continue Q4 to be a contributing factor to the landscape of the early region. Even after the initial European settlement on Christmas Eve in 1741, the Lenape trading continued, Q5 though the written history primarily follows the progress of white settlers.
These settlers, a group of Moravians led by David Nitschman and Count Nicolas von Zinzendorf, called the region Bethlehem, after the birthplace of Jesus Christ. The Moravians set up missions to convert the Lenape and non-English-speaking Christians to the tenets of Moravianism, a practice widely criticized for its ignorance of local traditions. Q6 [B] Although the group was relatively small and its religious influence did not reach as far as other Q7 groups, the Moravians had a lasting cultural influence on the shape of the early United States. With their strong ties to Germany and musical bent, the annual Moravian Bach festival was one of the first places for people to hear the music from overseas that would become so internationally influential. [C]
In the twentieth century, Bethlehem became known all over for the world for something much different: steel. Bethlehem Steel was founded in 1857 amid the industrial revolution, and by the 1940s, its Q8 factory was providing substantial amounts of armor and steel for troops in World War II, in addition to providing the metalwork for bridges and structures all over the country. The plant ceased operations in 1995, but its blast furnaces, those reminders of past industrial glory, remains. Q9
Some cities might have been laid low by the death of a major industry, but Bethlehem has emerged seemingly unscathed. Although locals know it as the "Christmas City," for the many decorations and activities there in December, Bethlehem is also a significant culture center for the region, and its former steel mill has been repurposed to host all variety of events. [D] The contributions of Bethlehem have changed from century to century, so it should be no surprise that the twenty-first century should bring to the city something no one's ever seen the like of. Q10