Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.
Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.
After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.
Look It Up!
 Imagine you're texting someone, and the two of you get into a heated debate.  They correct our spelling.  Finally, to prove your point once and for all, you write a voluminous, paragraph-long text, only to see that your interlocutor has responded, "TL; DR."  Now, you might know that this means "too long, didn't read," but what if you don't?
Q1  Well, Urban Dictionary can save the day.  Just type the phrase into Google and see what turns down. Q2  Dictionaries have a way of showing up in every facet of our digital lives. They translate pages in foreign languages.  They define words that we think we know and those we've never heard of.  Dictionaries are everywhere.Q3
In fact, dictionaries are so prevalent that it's easy to forget that they have not Q4 always existed. The word "dictionary" was in fact not coined until John of Garland published his Dictionarius in 1220 to help readers with their Latin diction. Q5 Furthermore, numerous dictionaries Q6
appeared throughout the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period; the first noteworthy English dictionary came from Samuel Johnson, whose Dictionary of the English Language was published first in 1755. Johnson's opus remains the first modern dictionary, containing consistent spellings, variant definitions, textual usages, and alphabetical, Q7 arrangements. Johnson's dictionary was the law of the lexicon until 1884, when the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) began its reign, which continues today.
Johnson's American counterpart was Noah Webster, who published his first dictionary in 1806. Webster's best-known work An American Dictionary of the English Language, Q8 was published in 1828. The text was based in large part on Johnson's dictionary, though it included 12,000 words that had not appeared in previous dictionaries. Q9
In addition, Webster was a spelling reformer who thought English spellings were overly ornate and complex. As a result, when Americans write "color" and "gray" where the English write other things, Q10 Americans have Noah Webster to thank.
What is interesting about these two dictionaries, and about the history of dictionaries in general, Q11 is how clearly they show the different directions that language can be pulled. On the one hand, a new dictionary should solidify the language in a new way—it should settle old disputes and give definitive definitions. On the other hand, each dictionary update shows that language is fluid and that no printed word can contain the varieties of language as it is actually used. After all, the OED may have told the world that "selfie" was the word of the year in 2013, but didn't the world know that already?